Thursday, May 31, 2007
HISTORICAL EVENTS LEADING TO A HOLIDAY IN JUNETo celebrate the country's 109th Independence Day, instead of June 12 which falls on a Tuesday, Malacanang has instead decided to declare June 11, a Monday, as a non-working holiday in order to create a three-day holiday weekend.
The locals are now used to President Arroyo's "holiday economics" or the practice of moving non-working holidays to the nearest weekend to allow families to spend more quality time together and help boost local tourism.
Executive Secretary Eduardo Ermita announced that the Department of Tourism has prepared several activities for the public in the days leading up to the independence day celebrations.
But prior to listing some of these planned activities, more appropriate, I thought, is to first post a historical timeline of significant events that took place not only within the archipelago, but also in Europe, which affected the entire country from the start of the Spanish colonization period until the arrival of the Americans:
March 16 1521: A Spanish expedition led by the Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan lands on Homonhon Island east of Samar with three small ships, named the Concepcion, Trinidad and Victoria.
March 28, 1521: Embarking on a southwestward journey, Magellan reaches Limasawa Island, south of Leyte. It is ruled by Rajah Kulambo, who becomes Magellan's ally.
March 29,1521: To seal the friendship between Magellan and Rajah Kulambo, they solemnize a blood compact. This is the first recorded blood compact in Philippine history.
March 31,1521: The first mass on Philippine soil is celebrated on Limasawa.
April 7, 1521: After sailing to Cebu Island, Magellan enters a new blood compact with the local chieftain, Rajah Humabon.
April 27, 1521: Magellan dies in a battle with Lapu-Lapu, chieftain of Mactan, an island near Cebu.
1525: Spain sends an expedition under Juan Garcia Jofre de Loaysa to the Philippines. The expedition intends to find gold and spices but fails to do so. Loaysa and many members of his crew die in the Philippines.
1526: Spain sends a third expedition to the Philippines under the leadership of Juan Cabot. This expedition never reaches the archipelago as three years are wasted in South America, trying to find a new route to the East.
1527: The fourth expedition, under the command of Alvaro de Saavedra, is the first Spanish expedition starting from Mexico. It reaches Mindanao but on the way to Cebu Saavedra's ship is carried by strong winds to the Moluccas.
1529: Saavedra's expedition returns to Spain without Saavedra who died on the way home.
1536: The Loaysa expedition returns to Spain. One of its survivors is Andres de Urdaneta, its chronicler.
February 2, 1543: The leader of the most successful Spanish expedition after Magellan, Ruy Lopez de Villalobos arrives in the archipelago. He names the islands "the Philippines" in honor of the son of King Charles I, Philip II (1556-1598) of Spain.
Villalobos reaches Sarangani Island off the eastern coast of Mindanao and settles there for 8 months. But because of the scarcity of food, the expedition is forced to leave the place and sails to the Moluccas where Villalobos dies.
February 13, 1565: Miguel Lopez de Legazpi arrives in the Philippines with 380 men aboard four ships.
May 8, 1565: The Island of Cebu is surrendered to Legazpi by its ruler King Tupas. Legazpi establishes the first permanent Spanish settlement on Cebu and becomes the first Spanish Governor-General. By his order, tributes are collected from all Filipino males aged 19 to 60.
1568: The Portuguese, under the command of General Gonzalo de Pereira, attack Cebu and blockade its port.
1570: The Portuguese again attack the colony and are repulsed. The series of attacks stems from Portugal's claim to the territory based on the provision of the Treaty of Tordisillas entered into by Spain and Portugal on June 7, 1474, in which their respective spheres of influence, trade and conquest were defined. The Portuguese believe that the Philippines falls within their sphere.
May, 1570: Legazpi sends an expedition under the leadership of Martin de Goiti to Manila. Manila is ruled by Rajah Suliman, whose friendship is won by de Goiti.
May 19, 1571: Rajah Suliman wages war against the Spaniards due to a move by Martin de Goiti which he mistakes for an assault. De Goiti's army defeats Suliman's troops and occupies the town.
June 24, 1571: Legazpi establishes his government in Manila and proclaims it the capital of the Philippines.
August 20, 1572: Legazpi dies and Guido de Lavezares succeeds him as governor. Lavezares extends colonization to the Bicol region.
November 23, 1574: The Chinese pirate captain Limahong attacks Manila but the Spaniards win with the help of the Filipinos.
December 2, 1574: Limahong again attacks Manila, this time with 1,500 soldiers, but remains unable to conquer the city.
December, 1574: Lakandula leads a short revolt in Tondo against the Spanish.
1580: The Spanish King Philip II receives the throne of Portugal upon the death of the Portuguese King Sebastian. This puts an end to the Portuguese harassment of the Philippine archipelago.
1580: The Spaniards institute forced labor on all male natives aged 16 to 60.
August, 1583: A great fire rages in Manila which starts from the candles around the bier of governor Penalosa.
1589: The Spaniards establish the first school in the Philippines, the College of San Ignacio.
1600: The Dutch attack the archipelago in a tactical offensive during the European war between Spain and the Netherlands.
1600: Governor Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera begins collecting the bandala from the natives. Bandala is an annual quota of products assigned to the natives for compulsory sale to the government.
The Galleon trade between Manila and Acapulco, Mexico begins. But Manila serves merely as a trans-shipment port for the exchange of goods between Spain and Mexico on the one side and China on the other. Silver from Mexico is traded for any kind of Chinese merchandise. Because of the Galleon trade's quick and lucrative returns, Spain lacks interest in developing the Philippine economy during the first 200 years of its occupation.
1603: Chinese insurrection in Manila.
1622: An early revolt takes place in Bohol. It is headed by Tamblot, a babaylan or priest of the native religion. Revolts in Leyte, Samar and Panay follow, all protesting the collection of tributes.
1744: One of the most successful revolts in Philippine history breaks out, once more in Bohol, and provides the island a kind of independence from the Spaniards for the following 85 years. The first leader of the revolt is Francisco Dagohoy.
May 15, 1754: Mt Taal emits magma and destroys the towns of Lipa, Sala, Tanauan and Talisay.
September 22, 1762: In a side encounter of the European Seven Years War, the British attack Manila with 13 vessels and 6,830 men under the command of General William Draper and Admiral Samuel Corning. The British win the battle and occupy the city.
October 5, 1762: The British take control of the Philippines and Darsonne Drake becomes Governor-General. The British open the colony to international trade and ultimately change its economic life.
December 14, 1762: A revolt under the leadership of Diego Silang breaks out in the Ilocos region.
May 2, 1763: The revolt ends as Diego Silang is assassinated by his former friend Miguel Viscos.
February 10, 1763: The Treaty of Paris between England, Spain and France is signed, ending the Seven Years War in Europe as well as the British occupation of the Philippines.
November 9, 1774: Parishes are secularized by order of King Charles III of Spain. Natives are also permitted to enter the Catholic priesthood.
May, 1808: French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte installs his brother Joseph as King of Spain. French-influenced liberals support the king but the people do not.
January 22, 1809: As an effect of the appointment of Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain, all Spanish colonies including the Philippines are made integral parts of Spain by the Spanish Central Junta. Filipinos are given the privileges of Spanish citizenship as well as representation in the Spanish Cortes (parliament).
March 19, 1812: The Spanish Cortes promulgates the Cadiz Constitution. It is a liberal constitution, vesting sovereignty in the people, recognizing the equality of all men and the individual liberty of the citizen, and granting the right of suffrage, but providing for a hereditary monarchy and for Catholicism as the state religion.
September 24, 1812: The first Philippine delegates to the Spanish Cortes, Pedro Perez de Tagle and Jose Manuel Coretto take their oath of office in Madrid, Spain.
March 17, 1813: Spain officially implements the Cadiz Constitution in Manila.
October 16 to 19, 1813: The Battle of the Nations near Leipzig, Germany; it ends with Napoleon and the French defeated.
Following the French defeat at Leipzig, the British General Duke of Wellington drives the Napoleonic forces out of Spain.
1814: Ferdinand VII, son of Charles IV, is recognized as King of Spain.
June 18, 1815: Napoleon Bonaparte is defeated in a battle with another multi-national army under Wellington at Waterloo, Belgium.
October 15, 1815: Bonaparte is exiled to St. Helena's Island in the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of West Africa.
May 24, 1816: After the defeat of Napoleon in Europe and his brother's loss of the Spanish throne, conservative forces again dominate Spanish politics. The Spanish Cortes rejects the Cadiz Constitution which means, among other things, that Philippine representation in the Cortes is abolished.
1820: Changes in Philippine economic life, partially introduced by the British, lead to some internal prosperity. In agriculture, crops are relegated by region so that tobacco becomes the chief crop of the north, sugar the main crop of the Visayas, and abaca the mainstay of the Bicol region. The same year, foreigners are massacred in Binondo. They were under suspicion of poisoning Pasig River and thus being responsible for a severe epidemic of cholera.
1828: An earthquake lasting between 2 to 3 minutes damage a number of buildings and churches in Manila.
1830: The Port of Manila is opened to the world market.
1835: The Chamber of Commerce is installed. Francisco Rodriguez establishes the first Filipino bank.
1848: Glowing avalanche from Mt Hibok-Hibok on Camiguin island
December 4 to 6, 1852: Glowing avalanche from Mt Hibok-Hibok.
1863: The educational system in the archipelago is reformed, allowing the natives higher levels of training. Wealthier native families start sending their children to study in Spain.
June 3, 1863: At 19:00, a terrific earthquake shakes Manila and ruins most buildings in the city, including the cathedral. Of major structures, only the San Agustin church remains standing.
November 17, 1869: The Suez Canal is opened, establishing a regular steamship service between the Philippines and Europe. This allows not only the influx of more goods into the colony but also of new ideas.
February 17, 1872: Three martyr priests are publicly garroted as alleged leaders of the Cavite Conspiracy, a movement for secularization and nationalism, which is distasteful to the Spanish friars. They are Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez, and Jacinto Zamora. The incident gives the Filipinos an impetus to unite and to develop national consciousness. It also gives birth to a reform movement among Filipinos in Spain, known as the Propaganda Movement.
1880: Manila is connected through telegraphic cable to the Western world by Eastern Telecom.
July 18 & 20, 1880: Two shocks of an earthquake create destruction from Manila to Santa Cruz, Luguna. Tremors continue until August 6th.
March 3, 1882: Jose Rizal leaves Manila for Barcelona to continue his studies in medicine.
June 2, 1882: Rizal begins writing Noli Me Tangere in Madrid, a political novel set in the Philippines.
1884: Exaction of tribute from all male natives is ended and the required forced labor of 40 days a year is reduced to 15 days.
June 21, 1884: Rizal finishes his medical studies in Spain.
May 29, 1887: Noli Me Tangere is published in Madrid and Barcelona.
October, 1887: Rizal begins writing El Filibusterismo.
December 13, 1888: Filipinos in Barcelona establish the organization La Solidaridad. It demands for the Philippines freedom of press, speech and assembly, equality before the law, participation in governmental affairs, social and political freedom and representation in the Spanish Cortes. The demands are published and circulated in Barcelona for the purpose of reaching the Spanish King's ear. Among the members are: Jose Rizal, Lopez Jaena, Marcelo del Pilar, Antonio Luna, and Mariano Ponce.
March 28, 1891: Rizal finishes writing El Filibusterismo in Biarritz, France.
June 26, 1892: Rizal arrives in the Philippines via Hong Kong.
July 3, 1892: In Ilaya St, Tondo, Rizal founds La Liga Filipina to give the people a chance for direct involvement in the reform movement.
July 7, 1892: The Spanish authorities arrest Rizal for organizing La Liga Filipina.
July 17, 1892: Rizal is exiled to Dapitan, Mindanao.
July 8, 1894: Believing that a revolution is the only way to obtain reforms, Andres Bonifacio forms the Katipunan. Its members come from the lower and the middle class. The organization wants to awaken nationalism and free the Filipino people from Spanish oppression and friar despotism.
July 1, 1896: Rizal receives a telegram from Governor Ramon Blanco requiring his services as a physician for the Spanish army in Cuba.
August 6, 1896: Rizal returns to Manila.
August 19, 1896: Spanish authorities discover the Katipunan when one of its members, Teodoro Paterno, betrays the organization to an Agustinian priest, Fr. Mariano Gil. All those implicated are ordered arrested but many Katipuneros evade arrest and flee to the hills of Balintawak.
August 23, 1896: A revolution is proclaimed by Bonifacio. The event is marked in history as the Cry of Balintawak. In this instance, Filipinos tear up their cedulas (I.D. cards) issued by the Spanish government and thereby mark the beginning of the uprising against the Spaniards.
August 26, 1896: Rizal goes to Cavite where he boards a ship for Barcelona. In the following night, Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto and other Katipuneros are able to surreptitiously board Rizal's ship. They offer to rescue him from the Spaniards, but Rizal refuses.
August 30, 1896: After the spread of the Katipunan revolt throughout the archipelago, the first real battle for Philippine independence takes place at San Juan del Monte. The Spanish Governor Ramon Blanco proclaims a state of war in the 8 provinces that took up arms. The provinces are Manila, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas, Pampanga, Bulacan, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija.
September 2, 1896: Aboard the ship Isla de Panay, Rizal leaves Cavite for Barcelona.
October 3, 1896: Rizal arrives in Barcelona.
October 4, 1896: By order of Capt. Gen. Despujol, Rizal is incarcerated in Montjuich.
October 6, 1896: On orders from Madrid, Rizal is sent back to Manila as a prisoner.
October 31, 1896: A new group of the Katipunan is formed in Cavite; it discards the leadership of Andres Bonifacio and is headed by Emilio Aguinaldo.
November 13, 1896: Rizal arrives in Manila and is immediately imprisoned at Fort Santiago.
November 20, 1896: Rizal is interrogated the first time on charges of partaking in an uprising against the Spanish government.
December 20, 1896: Rizal is sentenced to death by a Spanish court martial, and Governor Camilo Polavieja orders his execution.
December 30, 1896: The Spaniards execute Jose Rizal in Bagumbayan, now Rizal Park.
March 22, 1897: The Katipunan holds its election. Aguinaldo is elected as president while Bonifacio is elected only as director of war. Bonifacio is insulted by the election results and refuses to recognize the new leadership.
April 29, 1897: Katipuneros arrest Andres Bonifacio and his brothers Procopio and Ciriaco on orders of Aguinaldo. The Bonifacios are charged with sedition and treason before a military court of the Katipunan.
May 8, 1897: The Katipunan court finds the Bonifacios guilty. They are sentenced to death.
May 10, 1897: Andres Bonifacio and his brothers are executed at Mt. Buntis, Maragondon, Cavite.
May 31, 1897: Aguinaldo establishes a Philippine republican government in Biak-na-Bato, San Miguel, Bulacan.
August 10, 1897: Aguinaldo begins negotiating with the Spaniards, represented by Pedro Paterno.
August 15, 1897: An earthquake at estimated intensity of 7.9 centered on Luzon's northwest coast shakes Batanes and northern Luzon.
November 1, 1897: The Constitution of Biak-na-Bato is signed. It was prepared and written by Isabelo Artache and Felix Ferrer.
The government of the Biak-na-Bato Republic has the following officers: Emilio Aguinaldo, President; Mariano Trias, Vice President; Isabelo Artache, Secretary of Interior; Antonio Montenegro, Secretary of Foreign Affairs; Baldomero Aguinaldo, Secretary of Treasury and Emiliano Riego de Jesus, Secretary of War.
The Biak-na-Bato Republic fails as its leader, Aguinaldo, resigns to the fact that the Filipinos are not yet ready to confront the Spanish forces. This belief also drives him to negotiate with the Spaniards for the Pact of Biak-na-Bato.
December 14, 1897: The Pact of Biak-na-Bato between the Spanish and Aguinaldo is signed. In this pact, Aguinaldo agrees to surrender all arms and to go with his companions into exile in Hong Kong upon payment of 800,000 pesos and an additional 900,000 pesos for the non-combatants who suffered losses because of the war.
December 27, 1897: Aguinaldo and his companions leave for Hong Kong where they live on their new-found wealth.
School of History, Philosophy, Political Science and International Relations
Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand
Rajah Solaiman Statue
Rajah Solaiman Plaza, Roxas Boulevard
Shutter: 10/2000 sec
Focal Length: 39mm
National Post Office
Shot from Jones Bridge
Focal Length: 5.8 mm
posted by Señor Enrique at 1:26 PM
- myepinoy said...
Very informative. Great post indeed.
- rhodora said...
Wow, this is Philippine History in a nutshell, Eric!
I don't quite buy President Arroyo's "holiday economics". Well, let's say it is just a matter of date, but I believe certain historical holidays such as the Independence Day somewhat lose a bit of their significance when their commemoration is moved to another date.
- Senor Enrique said...
Many thanks, Rolly!
This particular resource I used because of its inclusion of certain European events that somehow affect the Philippine archipelago -- such as in the case in May, 1808 when French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte installed his brother Joseph as King of Spain.
And as result of such appointment, Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain, declared all Spanish colonies including the Philippines as integral parts of Spain by the Spanish Central Junta. Hence, all Filipinos were given the privileges of Spanish citizenship as well as representation in the Spanish Cortes (parliament).
I think is is indeed an intriguing historical event.
- rhodyl said...
detailed na detailed.. ang hirap mag type nyan.. nice post
Is it safe to say then that "Kurakot" maybe started on December 14, 1897?hehe..
Also, did Aguinaldo and his comrades-in-loots, este, comrades-in-arms, lived happily in Hongkong or returned to the Philippines? Just curious. Very informative posts and pic is quite lovely. Cheers...
- Senor Enrique said...
I agree with you, Rhoda. In the States, July fourth is formidably synonymous with Independence Day. Now, whether that day falls on any day of the week, it up to employers to consider if they were to give their staff a Monday or a Friday off as well for a four-day weekend holiday. Retail organizations do not give such privileges for obvious reasons.
For Americans, unarguably, celebrating July 4th on the 3rd or 5th day of July instead would be just too discombobulating ... hehehe.
Or how about Mexico urging its people to celebrate Cinco de Mayo on the 6th or 4th day in May instead? That might only incite a major revolt by its citizenry ... hahaha!
This should prove these countries' peoples' deep respect for their history. Wish we have the same here in the Philippines.
BTW, I heard Arroyo's "holiday economics" does not fare well with our local business owners.
- Senor Enrique said...
Labor of love, Rhodyl ... hehehe.
But seriously, I grabbed most details from the Victoria University website (as I had indicated and given due credit), and I then edited but still italicized to indicate not entirely of my very own creation.
- Senor Enrique said...
I think "pimping off the revolution" is a much more apt phrase, TruBlue.
Ironically, they didn't live off as happily as they might have envisioned it, because they were only given the down payment and the rest was reneged ... hahaha!
Of course they were seething with anger for having been betrayed that when Dewey came along and asked for their help to oust the Spaniards, they gladly responded.
Unfortunately, he wasn't made president when the Americans bought the archipelago for twenty million dollars because there was no independence granted afterwards anyway.
Talk about karma ... hahaha!
- nashei_nicola said...
i had to memorize this during highschool.it' s a hard work since im not good with numbers.
- Senor Enrique said...
Learning by rote is the worst way of learning anything, Nashei. I should know because I had my share of it in my science-oriented high school. I may be able to memorize anything long enough for the duration of the school year but they all get forgotten eventually :(
- richard tuason-sanchez bautista said...
there are some typos, like 1943, but the information is great, very informative
- Senor Enrique said...
Thanks, Richard. I had already corrected the typo :)
- Ricky said...
Independence under the protection Mighty North America, this was part of the proclamation that was read during that day. That's why the actual independence is still in question. It is evident that Aguinaldo & his cohorts will pledge allegiance to any nation more powerful than the previous colonizer.
My 2 cents.
- Senor Enrique said...
That phase, "under the protection Mighty North America," may have become superfluous.
What I am more excited about, as evidenced by the recent senatorial election, is that the Filipinos are now exercising the true power of their votes -- no "balimbing" or superstar actor without the experience of public service got elected. This in itself is worth celebrating!
I remain optimistic that the Filipinos are attaining spiritual maturity (I don't mean religious) and now making the correct choices leading to a good government!
- dave (",) said...
I'd like to say a lot, but it'll be like writing my own history book (which would merely copy those that I've read). Anyway, I'd just like to say that this is hardly history in a nutshell.
I'd like to expound on the assignment of June 12 as independence day. When USA granted our independence after the Second World War, they did so on the fourth of July. But of course you know what would happen if we share the same Independence Day of a more prominent country. To suit a nationalistic preference decades later, Diosdado Macapagal decreed that our Independence Day be on the day that Aguinaldo declared it. Then again decades later, to suit her economic preference, the Macapagal daughter moves the holiday's non-working aspect to another day.
- NOYPETES said...
Thanks for sharing! I noticed that you did your research materials about our pinoy history mostly from a foreign source. Good to know that archives outside of the Philippines are preserving chronicles of our history.
Very good history post to enlighten those who've missed most of these in class or were just putting more of their time learning a foreign language in another classroom.
The holiday thing in Manila goes with the same reputation that UST had for having the most no school holidays celebrated among all the universities in the Philippines.."Umutot lang daw yung pari, wala ng pasok sa UST!"
- Senor Enrique said...
Yes, I agree that this is hardly history of the Philippines in a nutshell. My intention is merely to remind our fellow bloggers of some significant historical events worthy of remembrance.
As for Arroyo's change of date of celebration, I think it is simply her way to appease the masses by giving them long weekend holidays.
- Senor Enrique said...
Yes, Noypetes, I thought I'd use that resource so as for a different point of view (probably influenced by my preoccupation with taking pictures so much lately ... hehehe).
Would you believe that in my four years of high school in MIT, we weren't taught about the British occupation of our country? Neither did we touch upon the Portuguese and Dutch attacks. Oh well ...
Yes, much to the great displeasure of our business owners, our country has the most holidays; compared that to the States wherein we would ask one another which ex-president has been seriously ill as of late ... hahaha.
- carlotta said...
thanks for the refresher course on philippine history! =)
i'm back, btw. woohoo! =)
- Senor Enrique said...
Yeyyy! Welcome back, carla!
Very detailed and immaculately written!
- Senor Enrique said...
Thanks, Kyels, but don't forget that this list is simply a quick snapshot, so to speak, of some significant events in our history.
- eye said...
wow. even our (local) history books did not reveal such detailed info. it's interesting to note that in 1948, mt. hibok-hibok was still active.
and yes, i love the bottom photo, how the post office is accentuated by our flag.
i love the month of June. holidays on june 12 and 19 (rizals' bday) hehe!
- punkiliciousss said...
wow that's "concise"! hahaha! but, actually, that's pretty much the history. nice one!
oh and thanks for the bookmark and the comment on my blog.
- Senor Enrique said...
Where is Mount Hibok-Hibok, anyway. I don't think it is in Luzon, is it?
Interesting sometimes to check out another culture's perspective of our historical timeline, and this is why I used this one, Eye.
- Senor Enrique said...
Thank you as well, Punkiliciousss!
And please update your blog site more regularly now because you do have an interesting one :)
- scott kho said...
whew! puro facts ha! nice photographs nonetheless!
sometimes, it benefits all to look back once in a while.
- Senor Enrique said...
Especially at my age, Scott, it's good to remind myself of such events ... hehehe.
I was also inspired to post this timeline by nephews and nieces (and the other many Fil-Ams) who were born and grew up abroad; hoping that they retain their pride in their heritage
- Reno said...
I wonder what would have happened if Bonifacio accepted Aguinaldo's "presidency" and they worked together? Would that change things somehow?
- Senor Enrique said...
Tough to speculate on "what could have been scenarios" regarding our history, Reno, considering that our past is muddled with betrayals, treasons, jealousies and whatnot. Even Rizal became a victim of intense envy from his Pinoy friends in Europe.
- tony said...
After reading your reply to my friend Ka Peter (Noypetes), I learned that you spent your high school at MIT...WOW!!! "red robin" ka rin pala! I also had my high school at Doroteo Jose and my world history (there was no Philippine history class) teacher was Mr. Gideon Mina, baka magkalase tayo!
Anyway, here's something I want to share about our "araw ng kalayaan". My first job was a Philippine History Researcher for The National Heroes Commission, under Carlos Quirino, which was under The Secretary of Education Mr. Anding Roces, Pre. Diosdado Macapagal Administration. After researching about "Malolos Constitution" then learning more about the proclamation of independence by Aquinaldo on June 12, we submitted our findings to Joe Buhain (who was my "bayaw"), who was then the secreatry of Anding Roces. Anding Roces, who is a Philippine history & culture buff, grab the idea of "we were already independent" before the gringos gave us "independence". Of course Mr. Roces influenced President "Cong Dadong" to change the "celebration of our kalayaan" Well the gringos didn't appreciate the change!!!
Anyway here's a short story about Aquinaldo's June 12 declaration...
“Our principles of operation, is to attack and take small, medium cities and extensive rural areas first; TAKE BIG CITIES, THEN THE MAIN CITY LATTER” (quotations from Mao Tse-Tung’s Red Book). Hindi sa ibig ko laging bigyan ng halaga ang mga sinabi ni Mao Zedong, ngunit ang kaniyang sinabing ito ay isang makatotohanan at napakabisang operasyong militar. Noong panahon ng Roman Empire nagkaroon ng pagaalsa ang isa sa mga probinsya ng Roma, ang Carthage na ngayon ay Tunisia, sa pamumuno ni Hannibal. Sapagkat ang dagat Mediterrane ay nasakamay ng mga Romano, si Hannibal, kasama ang kaniyang Carthegan militar at mga elepante, iniwasan ang dagat ng Mediterran at umikot patungong Roma. Naglakbay sa baybayin ng North Africa, tumawid sa Espania, Fransia (Gaul), nagdaan sa napakalamig na nagyeyelong bundok ng Alps at bumaba patungong Roma, upang salakayin ito mula sa kaniyang likuran. Natalo ang mga Romano sa unang isinagawang Punic War ng mga Carthagean.
Ang mga “Christian Crusaders” sa “Holy Land” ay naging matagumpay lang sa karatigpook at hindi man lamang nakaapak sa lunsod ng Jerusalem na nasa kamay pa rin nang mga Muslim, sa pamumuno ni Saladin. Sa dahilang ito, ang mga “Crusaders” ay hindi nagwagi at hangang sa kasalukuyan ang Jerusalem ay nasapoder pa rin ng mga Muslim.
Noong pangalawang digmaang mundyal, ang lunsod ng Berlin, kapital ng Alemania ang huling sinakop ng mga Axis Army na naging sagisag nang pagtatagumpay. Noong Vietnam War naman, ang mga VietCong at Regular Army ng North Vietnam ay na sa Khe Sanh, Da Nang at iba pang malabundukin at kagubatan ng Vietnam. Ang huling-huling sinakop ng mga North Vietnam Regular Army at mga VietCong ay ang kabiserang Saigon, na kinatapusang pananakop at pakikialam ng Estados Unidos sa kanilang bayan.
Ang lunsod na kapital ng isang bansa ang kinakailangang sakupin, nang ipatupad ang tunay na tagumpay!!!
Nang dali-daling itinatag ni Aquinaldo, na para bang mayroong siyang “deadline”, ang “Kalayaan ng Pilipinas” noong Hunyo 12, 1898, ito ay isinagawa sa “RURAL” o probinsya, Kawit, Cavite at hindi sa Maynila (Intramuros). Bago itatag ni Aquinaldo ang “Kalayaan” katakot-takot na “meeting” ang nangyari na isinagawa ni Aquinaldo at kaniyang “self exile” na mga rebolusyonaryo (pagkatapos ng “Pack of Biak na Bato”); Gregorio del Pilar, Isidoro de los Santos, Jose Leyba at mga Amerikanong “consul” at Consul General E. Spenser Pratt. Idinaos ang unang “meeting” noong Abril 24, 1898, sa isang “Pub” na kung tawagin ay “Mansion River” sa Singapore. Sa “Pub” na ito pinagusapan ang “misyon” ng mga Amerikano na paalisin ang mga Kastila sa mga natitirang mga Islang kolonya ng nito; Cuba, Puerto Rico at Pilipinas na kasama na ang Guam. Sa pangyayaring ito ang, “paktong” kasunduan nilagdaan ni Aquinaldo at mga Kastila sa Biak na Bato, ay kaniyang sinuway.
Marami pang sunod-sunod na “meeting” ang nangyari, tuloy umuwi sa Pilipinas ang mga “self exile” na mga rebolusyonaryong lumalabag muli sa kasunduan ng “Pack of Biak na Bato.” Marami pang paulit ulit na mga “meeting” si Aquinaldo at mga Amerikano. Hangang iproklama ni Aquinaldo sa Kawit, na kaniyang lunsod ang “Kalayaan ng Pilipinas” Subalit ang pagkaproklama na sinagawa ay hindi dinaluhan ng kahit isang Amerikano. Bakit? Hindi ba’t sila ang ating “comrade at arms?” “Kaibigan?” “Kakampi?” Walang dumalo kahit mayroong imbitasyong isinagawa at ibinigay, maliwanag na ayaw ng mga Amerikano KILALANIN ANG ATING KALAYAAN.
Hulyo, 1998, halos lahat na nang mga karatigpook sa labas ng Maynila ay nasa kamay na ng mga Pilipinong rebolusyonaryo. Galing Camino Real, ang puwersa ni Aquinaldo ay papasok sa Malate sa harapan ng Fort San Antonio Abad, mayroon rin sa Singalong, Sta. Mesa at Tondo. Ang kahanga-hangang ang pangyayaring tagumpay na isinagawang magisa ng mga Pilipino sa pamumuno ni Aquinaldo! Isang Amerikanong “ war correspondent” F.D. Miller ay sumulat… ”the Insurgents had accomplished wonders in forcing the enemy (Spanish) to retire to their inner line of defenses, though they were practically without artillery.”
Si Dewey naman at ang kaniyang puwersang pangdagat ay na sa Manila Bay na hindi tumitinag. Ang mga “American land troops” ay hindi rin kumikilos hangang sa dumating ang buwan ng Agosto, ito’y isinagawa upang huwag lumabag sa kautusang galing sa Washington…”Land soldiers are not allowed any positions, save several hundred yards from the Insurgents’ frontlines.”
Nang mapalaunan ng mga Pilipino ang kapaligiran ng Intramuros, Si Aquinaldo ay patumpik-tumpik na tila may hinihintay na kung ano? Tila hindi mawari kung ano ang gagawin? Tuloy ang mga Amerikano ang siyang pumasok at nagpasuko sa mga nalalabing mga Kastila na nasa Intramuros!!!
Ang ginintuang katanungan ay ito…
1. Bakit tila naghihintay na kung ano, itong si Aquinaldo sa pagsalakay sa Maynila (Intramuros)? Napakalaki ng pagkakataon at panahon niya kasama ng mga rebolusyonayo na sakupin ang lunsod at angkinin ang tagumpay? Ano ang hinihintay ni Aquinaldo?
2. Bakit kumable dali-dali si Dewey sa Washington at nagaalala na ang mga Pilipino ay nagwawagi na at pinaliligiran na ang Maynila (Intramuros)?
3. Ano nga kaya ang tunay na detalya sa kasunduan ng mga Kastila at mga Amerikano bukod sa pagkakabenta ng mga Kastila sa mga Gringo ng kanilang nalalabing kolonyang mga isla, ng kanilang lagdaan ang Treaty of Paris?
4. Ano kaya ang pinag-“Meeting” na masinsinan nila Aquinaldo at nang mga US consuls sa Singapore at Hongkong? Meeting nila Aquinaldo at Dewey? Nila Aquinaldo, General Merritt at General Greene?
5. Ang kabayarang ibinigay ayon sa kasunduan ni Aquinaldo at nang Kolonyal na Pamahalaan ng Kastila sa Pilipinas sa Biak na Bato, ay nilustay ni Aquinaldo at kaniyang mga kasamahang Junta sa Hongkong. Ang mga Amerikano naman ang nagudyok kina Aquinaldo na sumuway sa kasunduang “Biak na Bato”. Sa ginawang ito, mayroon kayang “kabayaran” na naman na nangyari?
Napakahiwaga ng kasaysayan ng ating “KALAYAAN.” Hindi pa man nasasagot ang mga katanugang ito, binigyan naman tayo ng mga Hapon ng pekeng kalayaan, noong kanilang pananako. Binigyan rin tayo ng mga Amerikano ng hilaw na kalayaan…July 4, na tunay na hindi nila kinilala ang “kalayaan” na naganap noong Hunyo 12, 1898. Nasaan at alin ang tunay nating kalayaan?
Kung ang ating bayan ay tuluyang lagutin ang mga taling nakakabit sa nagpapagalaw sa mga “Puppet” sa kasalukuyan at sa nakaraang mga pamahalaan, lubos kaya ang “kalayaang minimithi?” Lalong lalo na sa hindi nakasisigurong katanungan… MAUULIT KAYA ANG MGA KASAKIMAN AT MALAGIM NA NANGYARI SA ATING KASAYSAYAN?
Salamat ng marami,
- Senor Enrique said...
Had forgotten his name but thanks for reminding me -- yes, Mr. Medina was my history teacher in my senior year with Mr. Policarpio as adviser of our afternoon class. We might have been classmates, indeed.
I'm really enjoying reading your comments -- what a delightful read. You're quite fortunate to have landed such an interesting job as a history researcher.
By the way, didn't MacArthur employ the same military strategy -- take the small islands first before Tokyo?
As I've read more about Aguinaldo during my adulthood, I've come to remove his name from list of the country's heroes. The points you've raised about him only justified my action.
Maraming salamat din, Tony, for sharing with us your great interest and knowledge about our local history; much appreciated, indeed.
- Penguin said...
Great post there, with the research work done by the University of Wellington - in their site for the Spanish Colonization of the Philippines with a timeline. But certainly very informative and interesting. Also interesting is the next series from the same University, the period when the Americans came, until after World War II. A lot of the family names are still around, but at different sides of the fence then and now. Some were collaborators with the Japanese, some were against. Interesting indeed.